Showing posts with label Research methods. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Research methods. Show all posts

Wednesday, November 6, 2013

Observation : Advantages and Disadvantages

observation method

What is observation?

Observation is way of gathering data by watching behavior, events, or noting physical characteristics in their natural setting. Observations can be overt (everyone knows they are being observed) or covert (no one knows they are being observed and the observer is concealed). The benefit of covert observation is that people are more likely to behave naturally if they do not know they are being observed. However, you will typically need to conduct overt observations because of ethical problems related to concealing your observation.

Observations can also be either direct or indirect. Direct observation is when you watch interactions, processes, or behaviors as they occur; for example, observing a teacher teachinga lesson from a written curriculum to determine whether they are delivering it with fidelity. Indirect observations are when you watch the results of interactions, processes, or behaviors; for example, measuring the amount of plate waste left by students in a school cafeteria to determine whether a new food is acceptable to them.
newton

What are the advantages of observation?


 >>  Collect data where and when an event or activity

       is occurring.
>>  Does not rely on people’s willingness or ability
      to provide information.
>> Allows you to directly see what people do rather
      than relying on what people say they did.

What are the disadvantages of observation?

 >>  Susceptible to observer bias.
 >>  Susceptible to the “hawthorne effect,” that is,
       people usually perform better when they know
       they are being observed, although indirect
       observation may decrease this problem.
 >>  Can be expensive and time-consuming compared
        to other data collection methods.
 >>  Does not increase your understanding of why
        people behave as they do.

Sunday, October 27, 2013

Why Research ?


Why Research-




Research- search for knowledge, is the process of inquiry and discovery.

• The primary purposes of basic research (as opposed to applied research) are documentation, discovery, interpretation, or the research and development of methods and systems for the development of methods and systems for the advancement of human knowledge.

• Approaches to research depend on epistemologies (Knowledge Science), which vary considerably both within and between humanities and sciences.

Why Do We Research -

  • We do research for explain something.
  • we do research for explore something.
  • We do research for describe something.
  • We do research to learn something new.
  • we do research to developing critical thinking.
  • we do research for the development of our conditions.
  • We do research for knowing and understanding the world.

Saturday, October 26, 2013

Types of Research


TYPOLOGY OF RESEARCH



 Research can be classified in many different ways on the basis of the methodology of research.
The basic types of research are as follows:

  • Basic Research

Basic research ( also called pure research, fundamental research ) is driven by a scientist's curiosity or interest in a scientific question. The
main motivation is to expand man's knowledge , not to create or invent something. There is no obvious commercial value to the discoveries that result from basic research.
For example, basic science investigations probe for answers to questions such as- 
• How did the universe begin? 
• What are protons, neutrons, and electrons composed of? 
• How do slime molds reproduce? 
• What is the specific genetic code of the fruit fly?

  • Applied Research

Applied research, variously known as action research, operation research, social research, decison-linked research, is a type of research that covers a wide range of social science areas.Applied research is designed to solve practical problems of the modern world, rather than to acquire knowledge for knowledge's sake.The goal of the applied scientist is to improve the human condition .
For example, applied researchers may investigate ways to: For example, applied researchers may investigate ways to:

• improve agricultural crop production 
• treat or cure a specific disease 
• improve the energy efficiency of homes, offices, or modes of transportation.


  • Evaluative research
           It  is  concerned  with  the  evaluation  of  such  occurrences  as  social and  organizational  programs  or interventions. Very  often  health  and family planning activities  are  implemented  for  years  but  never assessed. In such cases evaluative research can be a valuable approach for examining retrospectively or  cross-sectional effect of the programme activities.So, Evaluative research attempts to -

•  Assess implemented activities and examine the short term effects of these activities
•  Determine the impact of a program.
•  Evaluate success of intervention.
Example, different health programmes operated by Ministry of health and family planning or by World 


health organization.
  • Academic Vs Professional Research
 Academic Research- Academic research refers to those researches which are done in educational institutes to get knowledge and degrees. For example, masters or PhD  research. Example,  masters or PhD research.

 Professional Research- Professional research refers to that type of research which is done by any consultant farm or person and they are paid for that research. For example,The feasibility study for Padma Bridge.

  • Qualitative Vs Quantitative research
• Qualitative research- Understanding of human behavior and the reasons that govern such behavior. Asking a broad question and collecting word-type data that is analyzed searching for themes. This type of research looks to describe a population without attempting to quantifiably measure variables or look to attempting to quantifiably measure variables or look to potential relationships between variables.

• Quantitative research- Systematic empirical investigation of quantitative properties and phenomena and their relationships. Asking a narrow question and collecting numerical data to analyze utilizing statistical methods. The quantitative research designs are experimental, correlation, and survey.

 Some research are:

• Scientific Research
• Social Research
• Exploratory research
• Constructive research
• Primary research 
• Secondary research
• Explanatory Research
• Experimental Research 
• Constructive research
• Empirical research
• Experimental Research
• Evaluation Research
• Descriptive Research
• Policy Research

Thursday, October 24, 2013

Definitions of Research

Research definition :

Research is a systematic inquiry to describe, explain, predict and control the observed phenomenon. Research involves inductive and deductive methods (Babbie, 1998).
See What is Research ?

Research Scholars definition :

Research ?

What is Research ?



The word ‘research’ perhaps originates from the old French word recerchier that meant to ‘search again’. Research is a systematic inquiry to describe, explain, predict and control the observed phenomenon. Research involves inductive and deductive methods (Babbie, 1998).
Research is-
1.      Search for knowledge.
2.      Any systematic investigation with an open mind to establish noble facts.

  1. Solve new or existing problems, prove new ideas or develop new theories.

 

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