Wednesday, November 20, 2013

Trade and Commerce

trade and commarce


Trade is the transfer of ownership of goods and services from one person or entity to another. Trade is sometimes loosely called commerce or financial transaction or barter .A network that allows trade is called a market. 
The original form of trade was barter, the direct exchange of goods and services. Later one side of the barter were the metals, precious metals (poles, coins), bill, paper money Modern traders instead generally negotiate through a medium of exchange, such as money. As a result, buying can be separated from selling, or earning.
The invention of money (and later credit, paper money and non-physical money) greatly simplified and promoted trade. Trade between two traders is called bilateral trade,
while trade between more than two traders is called multilateral trade.

Principle and characteristics of trade

• Trade exists for man due to specialization and division of labor, most people concentrate on a small aspect of production, trading for other products. Trade exists between regions because different regions have a comparative advantage in the production of some tradable commodity, or because different regions' size allows for the benefits of mass production. As such, trade at market prices between locations benefits both locations. between locations benefits both locations.

• Retail trade consists of the sale of goods or merchandise from a very fixed location, such as a department store, boutique or kiosk, or by mail, in small or individual lots for direct consumption by the purchaser. Wholesale trade is defined as the sale of goods or
merchandise to retailers, to industrial, commercial, institutional, or other professional business users, or to other wholesalers and related subordinated services.

• Trading can also refer to the action performed by traders and other market agents in the financial markets.


While business refers to the value-creating activities of an organization for profit, commerce means the whole system of an economy that constitutes an environment for business. The system includes legal, economic, political, social, cultural, and technological systems that
are in operation in any country . Thus, commerce is a are in operation in any country . Thus, commerce is a system or an environment that affects the business prospects of an economy or a nation-state. We can also define it as a second component of business which includes all activities, functions and institutions involved in transferring goods from producers to consumers.
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Sunday, November 10, 2013

Ancient Geography of India

Ancient Geography of India

The first text in Greek devoted entirely to India was written by Ctesias in the fourth century BC. Only fragments of it survive. Yet he was probably the most widely quoted author on India, although Aristotletreated him with contempt. However, soon after Aristotle drew upon Ctesias’ writings, as did Plato,Xenophon and Plutarch. From all these account India became a happy land, a kind of utopia. Pliny (AD 24-79) put forth the age-old notion that India covered one-third of the surface of the earth. Indian kings from Father Tiber to Alexander had reigned 6451 years and three months.
Anaximander of Miletus, born in 610 BC, was the first Greek to draw a map of the earth. It was shown there that the earth was shaped like two half moons of land. The one on the north was Europe and the southern one consisted of Asia and Africa. Together these two half moons enclosed an inland sea – theMediterranean, truly meaning the middle (medi) of the land (terra). Herodotus drew upon such an authority of the past and put forth his idea of the inhabited world – oikoumene. His notion of the earth was an oblong one, running from west to east. This was divided into three continents – Europe, Asia and Libya. He inform in one place in his writings that the boundaries of Europe were unknown and there was not a man who could say whether any sea girdled it round either to the north or to the east. He thought the farthest settled land in this world reached out to the Persian province of Punjab. Aristotle added that between the Pillars of Hercules (modern Gibraltar) and India there was nothing but ocean.
World Map of Herodotus
This was the sum of knowledge when Alexander began his conquests from Macedon, the tiny kingdom in distant Greece. With all the details given by the advanced parties through marches before the great expedition began across Europe, Alexander believed India to be a peninsula of no great depth, which just jutted eastward to the sea, and which on its northern flank was bordered by the chain of mountains. North of this, at no great distance beyond the River Jaxartes was the ocean. To Alexander India meant the land of the Indus River. Whether that mighty river was the source of the Nile or whether it flowed into the ocean was beyond his interest. He must have questioned the local interpreters on arrival with his vast army on the other side of the Indus. Most of the local people did not even know the meaning of the term ocean.
Ptolemy (AD 90–168) was a Roman citizen of Egypt who wrote in Greek. He was a mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer, and poet. His second book is the Geography, which is a thorough discussion of the geographic knowledge of the Greco-Roman world. In it he says that the true shape of India, the most striking feature of the land, is the acute angle formed by the meeting of the two coasts of the peninsula in a single coastline running almost straight from the mouth of the Indus to the mouth of the Ganga River.
Xuanzang (Hsüan-tsang AD 602 – 664) was a famous Chinese Buddhist monk, scholar, traveller, and translator who described the interaction between China and India in the early Tang period. The same division of five provinces – Five Indies – continue in his description of the land he travelled. He packs together the shape of India to a half moon with the diameter or broad side to the north and the narrow end to the south. This is not unlike the configuration of India in Ptolemy’s Geography; yet much more accurate. In fact the Chinese pilgrim author brings in a touch of humour when he says rather wryly that the people’s faces are the same shape as the country – narrow downward and broad on the top.

Friday, November 8, 2013




In Greek mythology, the Amazons were a race of warlike women noted for their courage and pride who lived at the outer limits of the known world, sometimes specifically mentioned as the city of Themiskyra on the Black Sea. Their queen was Hippolyta and although Homer tells us they were ‘the equal of men’, they fought and lost separate battles against three Greek heroes:Hercules, Theseus and Bellerophon. Scenes from these battles were popular in Greek art, especially on pottery and in monumental sculpture adorning some of the most important buildings in the Greek world.
In mythology, the Amazons were daughters of Ares, the god of war. They were a women-only society where men were welcomed only for breeding purposes and all male infants were killed. In legend, the Amazons burnt off their right breast in order to better use a bow and throw a spear, indeed, the word amazon may signify ‘breastless’. Interestingly though, Amazons are not depicted in Greek art with a missing breast. They are most often depicted wearing hoplite armour and frequently ride a horse. The most common weapon is the bow and spear but there are also examples where Amazons carry axes.
The first meeting between Greeks and Amazons was when Hercules was sent by Eurystheus, the king ofMycenaeTiryns and Argos on one of his celebrated twelve labours, this time to fetch the girdle of the Amazon queen Hippolyta. The girdle was given by her father Ares and the task was set by Eurystheus precisely because it was an impossibly dangerous endeavour. In some versions of the story Hercules goes alone but in other accounts he first assembles an army led by the finest Greek warriors, including Theseus. In some versions, the taking of the girdle turned out to be rather easier than expected when Hippolyta willingly handed it over but in other versions, Hera - always against Hercules because he was the fruit of her husband’s illicit affair with Alkmene - stirred up the Amazons to give the Greek hero and his army a hot reception. Fine fighters though the Amazons were, they were no match for the invincible Hercules who took the girdle back to Eurystheus. Intriguingly, our earliest depictions of the story in pottery predate the literary sources for the tale by two centuries and they sometimes show Hercules fighting an Amazon named Andromache or Andromeda and in none is a belt ever depicted. This is, once again, evidence that the oral myths were more complicated and varied than the literary versions that have survived. A more definite plot element is that during this expedition Theseus fell in love with and abducted (or eloped with) the Amazon Antiope, an action which would lead to a second encounter between Greeks and Amazons.   
Hercules fighting Amazons was represented in sculpture on the frieze of the Treasury of the Athenians atDelphi (490 BCE), on the Temple of Apollo at Bassae, on the Hephaisteion of Athens (449 BCE) and on metopes on the Temple of Zeus at Olympia (470-456 BCE). The throne of the cult statue of Zeus, one of the Seven Wonders of the ancient world, was also decorated with scenes from this famous myth.
Theseus eventually became the ruler of Athens but the Amazons had not forgotten the loss of one of their members and so launched an expedition to rescue Antiope. Theseus defeated the barbarian invaders but during the battle, Antiope was killed. Theseus abducting Antiope is the subject of the pediment from the Temple of Apollo at Eretria (c. 510 BCE) and on the metopes of The Treasury of the Athenians at Delphi. 
Bellerophon was involved in a third meeting between Greeks and Amazons. He was another hero who had to perform impossible tasks in service to a king. This time Proitos, king of Argos, outraged at (false) accusations from his wife that Bellerophon had attacked her, the king sent the hero to serve Iobates. It was he who set the hero the task of killing the Chimera - a fantastic creature which was a fire-breathing mix of lion, snake and goat - and when Bellerophon managed that feat he was told to go off and fight the Amazons. Naturally, the Greek hero won the day and was even made heir to Iobates’ kingdom in Lycia on his victorious return.
A fourth and final meeting with Amazons came towards the end of the Trojan War. In the Epic Cycle we are told that the Amazon Penthesilea aided the Trojans but was killed in battle by Achilles. In some accounts Achilles fell in love with his victim when he removed her helmet and the scene is captured on a celebrated black-figure vase by Exekias (c. 540 BCE).
More general Amazonomachies (battles with Amazons) were present on the shield of the cult statue ofAthena Parthenos in the Parthenon (438 BCE), on the west pediment of the Temple of Asklepios atEpidaurus (395-375 BCE), on the Temple of Athena Nike on the Athenian Acropolis (c. 425-420 BCE), on the Tholos of Delphi (380-370 BCE) and on the Temple of Ares in the Athens agora. The oldest depiction of a warrior fighting an Amazon is on a terracotta votive shield from 700 BCE. Hercules fighting Amazons is the hero’s second most popular labour depicted on Greek black-figure pottery (after the Nemean lion) with almost 400 surviving examples. Amazons fighting unnamed warriors were common throughout the 6th and 5th centuries both on black and red-figure pottery.
In particular, during the 5th century BCE in Athens, these mythological battles with Amazons came to represent contemporary events, i.e. the battles between Greeks and the invading Persian Armies of Darius at Marathon (490 BCE), Xerxes at Salamis and the Persian attack on Athens itself in 480 BCE. In this sense, Amazons came to represent barbarous foreigners; indeed depictions of Amazons on pottery in this period are shown actually dressed in Persian costume. Public buildings and their accompanying sculpture were, without doubt, an important method of mass communication and depictions of heroes fighting Amazons reminded ordinary people that the political leaders had successfully defended Greek culture against the threat of foreign, and in Greek eyes less civilized, invaders.

Wednesday, November 6, 2013

Observation : Advantages and Disadvantages

observation method

What is observation?

Observation is way of gathering data by watching behavior, events, or noting physical characteristics in their natural setting. Observations can be overt (everyone knows they are being observed) or covert (no one knows they are being observed and the observer is concealed). The benefit of covert observation is that people are more likely to behave naturally if they do not know they are being observed. However, you will typically need to conduct overt observations because of ethical problems related to concealing your observation.

Observations can also be either direct or indirect. Direct observation is when you watch interactions, processes, or behaviors as they occur; for example, observing a teacher teachinga lesson from a written curriculum to determine whether they are delivering it with fidelity. Indirect observations are when you watch the results of interactions, processes, or behaviors; for example, measuring the amount of plate waste left by students in a school cafeteria to determine whether a new food is acceptable to them.

What are the advantages of observation?

 >>  Collect data where and when an event or activity

       is occurring.
>>  Does not rely on people’s willingness or ability
      to provide information.
>> Allows you to directly see what people do rather
      than relying on what people say they did.

What are the disadvantages of observation?

 >>  Susceptible to observer bias.
 >>  Susceptible to the “hawthorne effect,” that is,
       people usually perform better when they know
       they are being observed, although indirect
       observation may decrease this problem.
 >>  Can be expensive and time-consuming compared
        to other data collection methods.
 >>  Does not increase your understanding of why
        people behave as they do.

Tuesday, November 5, 2013

Solar System

planets in solar system

Solar System

The Solar System comprises the Sun and its planetary system of eight planets, their moons, and other non-stellar objects. It formed 4.6 billion years ago from the gravitational collapse of a giant molecular cloud. The vast majority of the system's mass is in the Sun, with most of the remaining mass contained in Jupiter. The four smaller inner planets, Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars, also called the terrestrial planets, are primarily composed of rock and metal. The four outer planets, called the gas giants, are substantially more massive than the terrestrials. The two largest, Jupiter and Saturn, are composed mainly of hydrogen and helium; the two outermost planets, Uranus and Neptune, are composed largely of substances with relatively high melting points (compared with hydrogen and helium), called ices, such as water, ammonia and methane, and are often referred to separately as "ice giants". All planets have almost circular orbits that lie within a nearly flat disc called the ecliptic plane.
The Solar System also contains a number of regions populated by smaller objects.The asteroid belt, which lies between Mars and Jupiter, is similar to the terrestrial planets as it mostly contains objects composed of rock and metal. Beyond Neptune's orbit lie the Kuiper belt and scattered disc, linked populations of trans-Neptunian objects composed mostly of ices. Within these populations are several dozen to more than ten thousand objects that may be large enough to have been rounded by their own gravity. Such objects are referred to as dwarf planets. Identified dwarf planets include the asteroid Ceres and the trans-Neptunian objects Pluto, Eris , Haumea, and Makemake. In addition to these two regions, various other small-body populations includingcomets, centaurs and interplanetary dust freely travel between regions. Six of the planets, at least three of the dwarf planets, and many of the smaller bodies are orbited by natural satellites, usually termed "moons" after Earth's Moon. Each of the outer planets is encircled by planetary rings of dust and other small objects.
The solar wind, a flow of plasma from the Sun, creates a bubble in the interstellar medium known as the heliosphere, which extends out to the edge of the scattered disc. The Oort cloud, which is believed to be the source for long-period comets, may also exist at a distance roughly a thousand times further than the heliosphere. The heliopause is the point at which pressure from the solar wind is equal to the opposing pressure of interstellar wind. The Solar System is located within one of the outer arms of the Milky Way galaxy, which contains about 200 billion stars.

source : wikipedia

Monday, November 4, 2013

Ecosystem : Meaning and Definition



        The term ecosystem was first used by A. G. Tansley in 1935 who defined ecosystem as 'a particular category of physical systems, consisting of organisms and inorganic components in a relatively stable equilibrium, open and of various sizes and kinds'.
       An Ecosystem is a community of living organisms (plants, animals and microbes) in conjunction with the nonliving components of their environment (things like air, water, mineral soil), interacting as a system. These biotic and abiotic components are regarded as linked together through nutrient cycles and energy flows. As ecosystems are defined by the network of interactions among organisms and between organisms and their environment, they can be of any size but usually encompass specific limited spaces (although some scientists say that the entire planet is an ecosystem)-From

        According to Tansley the ecosystem is comprised of two major parts viz. biome and habitat and thus 'all parts of such an ecosystem-organic and inorganic, biome and habitat may be regarded as interacting factors which, in a mature ecosystem, are in approximate equilibrium, it is through their interactions that the whole system is maintained'-                                                                                                                 (A. G. Tansley, 1935)
        F. R. Fosberg (1963) has defined ecosystem as 'a functioning, interacting system composed of one or more living organisms and their effective environment, both physical and biological'.
        According to R. L. Lindeman (1942) the term ecosystem applies to 'any system composed of physical-chemical-biological processes, within a space-time unit of any magnitude'.
        According to A. N. Strahler and A. H. Strahler (1976), 'the total assemblage of components interacting with group of organisms is known as ecological system or more simply, an ecosystem. Ecosystems have inputs of matter and energy, used to build biological structure, to produce and to maintain necessary internal energy levels. matter and energy are also exported from an ecosystem. an ecosystem tends to achieve a balance of the various processes and activities within it'.

Based on the contents of above definitions of ecosystem provided by various scientists it may be pointed out that ' ecosystems are therefore unities of organisms connected to one another and to their environment'.

Sunday, November 3, 2013

Ecology : Meaning and Definitions

ecology definition

Ecology meaning
Ecology in a very simple term. The word ‘ecology’ (‘oecology’ or ‘oekology’) derived from two greek words, ‘oikos’ meaning house or dwelling as habitat and ‘logos’ meaning the study of.

Ecology definitions
The term ‘ecology’ was first coined and used by the German biologist, Ernst Haeckel in 1869, a few conceptual terms were already proposed to reveal relationships between organisms and their environment. ecology is a science that studies the interdependent, mutually reactive and interconnected relationships between the organisms and their physical environment on the one hand and among the organisms on the other hands.
For Example, French zoologist, Isodore geoffroy St. Hilaire used the term ecology in 1859, for the study of the relations of the organisms within the family and society in the aggregate and in the community.

It may be summarized that : ecology is a science that studies interrelationships between biotic and abiotic components  of a natural ecosystem of one hand and among organisms on the other hand.

  • S. Singh, Environmental Geography

Saturday, November 2, 2013

Dulhazra Safari Park( Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Safari Park) - Bangladesh

Dulahazra Safari Park

Figure : Map of Dulahazra Safari Park
Location: Chakaria, Dulahazra Union,Cox’s Bazar

Climate:   The climate is subtropical in nature. The average annual rainfall is 3599 mm, hottest month is October, coldest month is January, driest month is December, wettest month is July, average maximum temperature is 34.20C and average minimum temperature is 15.60C .

How to get there
It takes 2.5 hours from Chittagong.
From Cox’s Bazar you can reach Chakaria by Bus/ Microbus or Chander Gari ( One kind of Jeep).

Where to stay
After visiting this park you have to come back to Cox’s Bazar.There are many hotels and restaurant you can find in Cox’s Bazar to stay and fooding.

Entry Permits/Fees
Adults:                                                             BDT 20
Students(Below 15 years):                                   BDT 10
Student group( 30 to 100 persons):                BDT 200
Student group( More than 100 persons):       BDT 400
Foreigner :                                                      BDT 350/ USD 5    
Visit by safari bus :                                         BDT 20

Parking fee:
Bus:                                                                    BDT 100
Car/Microbus:                                                     BDT 50

Opening time
9.00 AM

Closing time
5.00 PM

safari park
Figure 2 :We are in safari park (GES 1st year field work team)
Bangladesh is a diverse country that attracts thousands of visitors each year. Tourists flock to the country to experience its unique culture, meet its friendly locals and enjoy the magnificence of the country’s wildlife. Many reserves and conservation projects have been established in Bangladesh to protect its rare wildlife and bird populations, and one such breathtaking eco-tourism initiative is the Dulahazra Safari Park.
Dulahazara Safari Park was established in 1996.This is the only  safari park in Bangladesh, situated 107 km south of Chittagong City under Chakaria Upazila of Cox’sBazar District. Dulahazra Safari Park was developed on an undulating landscape of around 2,224 acres of area at Chakaria Upazila in Cox's Bazar District, Bangladesh, some 50 km away from the cox'sbazar, with an objective to create facilities for Eco-tourism, research work and entertainment aside from conserving wild animals in a natural environment. Dulahazra Park is home to at least 4,000 animals of 165 species. There are several attractions inside the park. After entering the park, you'll find the orchid collections at right, and a museum at the left side, both are equally attractive. You can travel inside the park by transport system of the park or by feet. Attractive animals include Lions, Bengal Tigers, Crocodiles, Bears, Chitals and lots of different types of birds and monkeys. There has a watch tower from top of which you’ll enjoy the vast ocean of green plants.
Many individuals also 'donated' some of the animals to the park . The seized and donated animals recently sent to the park include 90 spotted deer (chital), 42 barking deer (maya, a species of muntjac deer), three sambar deer, one freshwater crocodile, one saltwater crocodile, nine black bear, four pythons, 17 peacocks, 19 Turkish pheasants and two emus. Other source of animal includes the Dhaka Zoo. While the animal population in Dhaka zoo has increased over the years due to their breeding, the Dhaka zoo donates a number of lions and tigers to the Dulhazra Safari Park. Visitor Attractions: The park itself protects a large number of wild elephants which are native to the area. In the safari park there are domesticated elephants which are available for a ride. Other animal attractions include lions, Bengal tigers, Crocodiles, Bears, Chitals and lots of different types of birds and monkeys. Since the park was made open to the public, it has been drawing a huge crowd all year round — 6,000 visitors daily during peak season.

monkey in safari park
Figure 3: monkeys in safari park

Dulahazra Safari Park is absolutely located for visitors to take pleasure in day trips out to this amazing conservation area. The park has got concentration as a recreation spot for universal mass of the people and for the biologists. It is one of the learning spots as well. The place has now become a Safari Park and a Zoo. Now a days, if any wild animal is unlawfully or unintentionally caught anywhere of the country, is being transported and placed in this area. Large number of people visits Safari Park because of its magnificent natural scenic beauty and attractive undulated landscape with green coverage. Hills and water bodies are interwoven with each other. It is also recognized for its ecological importance, and scientific, aesthetic and recreational values. The forest of Dulahazara range sustains subtropical evergreen and semi evergreen trees and wildlife. This area is important feeding ground of wild elephants because the herd of wild elephants often visits this area and damages public property.
Dulahazra Safari Park project got underway Between the years 1998 and 1999, occupying only a little piece of land, which has now mature to over two thousand acres of sheltered land. The government began to play an dynamic role in the improvement of the park in 2007, ensuring that unlawfully owned animals was held and taken to the park, with many of the animals also being donated by their owners. This has allowed the park’s population to grow to nearly four thousand animals, providing visitors with 165 species to marvel at. The variety of animals that have been seized and donated is astounding, with the park taking in saltwater crocodiles, black bears, barking deer, spotted deer, pythons, emus, freshwater crocodiles, peacocks and pheasants. All the animals have been given huge areas to roam freely, with lush forests and brush for their habitats. Some animals are kept at a distance from visitors for safety reasons. The Dhaka Zoo has also assisted in growing the number of animals in Dulahazra Safari Park through their reproduction program, enabling visitors to view other wildlife such as monkeys, lions, parrots, horses, giraffes, tigers, elephants, lizards, zebras and frogs. Some of the elephants at the park are domesticated, and visitors are able to interact with them.

Visitors can be driven through the Dulahazra Safari Park by jeep to explore the extraordinary wildlife, and there is a specially constructed tower for tourists where they are able to look out over the park and view numerous animals. It is really the ideal attraction for a family outing, as it is also a research centre that focuses on conserving the environment as well as educating the public.

With the major goal of serving the national need of biodiversity conservation education, research, recreation and in-situ  and  ex-situ  conservation of the  threatened, extinct and endangered animals. The park was established in 1998 with following objectives :-
Conservation and breeding of the extinct and endangered wild animal species. in the park as ex-situ condition.
To provide assistance for in-situ conservation of critically endangered wildlife through out the country.
Development of rescue center and veterinary hospital to provide assistance to injured wildlife in the country.
Development of the Nature Interpretation Center with light and sound model for creation of conservation awareness among the public.
To bring large water body for migratory birds under scientific management.
Establishment of aviary for extinct, rare endangered species of bird.
Establishment of a Natural History Museum for plants and animals endemic to the area.

Friday, November 1, 2013

Weathering ?

weathering definition

what is Weathering ?

Weathering is a static process. The process of disintegration and decomposition of rocks in situ is generally called weathering.

weathering definition

Weathering refers to the breakdown or disintegration and decomposition of rocks in situ through mechanical and chemical changes in the rocks  and their minerals effected by water, temperature, wind, different atmospheric gases and organisms provided that there is no large-scale transport of weathered products by denudational processes except massmovement of rockwastes down the slope under the impact of gravity.

According to C.D. Ollier (1969), “weathering is the breakdown and alteration of minerals near the earth’s surface to products that are more in equilibrium with newly imposed physico-chemical conditions”
According to P. Reiche (1950), “weathering is the response of minerals which were in equilibrium within the lithosphere to conditions at or near its contact with the atmosphere, the hydrosphere, and perhaps still more importantly ,the biosphere.”
B. B. Polynov(1937), has very precisely defined weathering as ‘the change of rocks from the massive to the clastic state.’
According to B. W. Sparks, “weathering may be defined as the mechanical fracturing or chemical decomposition of rocks by natural agents at the surface of the earth”

Arthur Holmes has presented more elaborate definition of weathering which also includes the processes of weathering.According to him “ weathering is the total effect of all the various subaerial processes that cooperate in bringing about the decay and disintegration of rocks, provided that no large-scale transport of the loosened products is involved. the work of rainwash and  wind, which is essentially erosional, is thus excluded”
-A. Homes (1952)

It appears from the above definitions that weathering is essentially the breakdown of rocks due to chemical and mechanical processes at their places.

Tuesday, October 29, 2013

What is environment ?


Meaning Of Environment

The word environment’ has been derived from the French word ‘environer’ meaning to encircle or to surround. The Dictionary meaning of the word ‘environment’ is a ‘surrounding’ ; external conditions influencing development or growth of people, animals or plants; living or working conditions etc.


Environment may refer to the physical and biological factors along with their chemical interactions that affect an organism.
Primarily,the concern of all geographers is with the environment of man. But man cannot exist or be understood in isolation from the other forms of life and from plant life’
-(A.N. Strahler and A.H. Strahler,1976, p.4)
Environment refers to the sum total of conditions which surround man at a given point in space and time’
-(C.c. Park,1980, p.28)
Environment is defined more comprehensively by others “as a holistic view of the world as it functions at any point of time, with a multitude of spatial elemental and socio-economic systems distinguished by quality and attributes of space and mode of behaviour of abiotic and biotic forms’ -(K. R. Dikhshit, 1984)

Thus environment is defined as ‘(1)The circumstances and conditions (physical conditions) that surround (and affect) an organism or group of organisms , or  (2) the social and cultural conditions that affect an individual or community.Since human inhabit the natural world as well as the ‘built’ or technological, social and cultural world, all constitute parts of our environment’
-(W. P. cunnigham and M.A. Cunnigham, 2004)


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